The introduction of bearing types

Deep Groove Ball Bearings

Deep groove ball bearings are the most representative structure of rolling bearings and are widely used. In addition to bearing radial load, it can also bear axial load in two directions. Low friction torque, most suitable for applications requiring high-speed rotation, low noise and low vibration. This kind of bearing, in addition to the open type, also has a bearing with a steel plate dust cover, a bearing with a rubber sealing ring, or a bearing with a snap ring attached to the outer diameter of the outer wheel. Generally, steel stamping cages are used. Deep groove ball bearings, larger bearings use copper alloy turned retainers. Turning retainers are also used when rotating at high speeds.

Angular Contact Ball Bearings

Single row angular contact ball bearings can only bear axial load in one direction, and will cause additional axial force when bearing radial load. And can only limit the axial displacement of the shaft or housing in one direction. Angular contact ball bearings have a contact angle of 40 degrees, so they can withstand large axial loads. Angular contact ball bearings are of non-separable design, with shoulders at different heights on both sides of the inner and outer rings. To increase the load capacity of the bearing, one of the shoulders is machined lower, allowing the bearing to fit more balls. 

Double row angular contact ball bearings can withstand larger radial loads and combined radial and axial loads and moment loads, limiting the axial displacement of the shaft on both sides. The inclination between the inner and outer rings of the double row angular contact ball bearing is limited in the components that are mainly used to limit the bidirectional axial displacement of the shaft and the housing. The allowable inclination angle depends on the internal clearance of the bearing, bearing size, internal design and the effect on forces and moments on the bearing, and the maximum allowable inclination angle should ensure that excessive additional stress is not generated in the bearing. If there is an inclination angle between the inner and outer rings of the bearing, the service life of the bearing will be affected, and at the same time, the running accuracy of the bearing will decrease and the running noise will increase. Double row angular contact ball bearings generally use nylon cages or brass solid cages. When installing the double row angular contact ball bearing, it should be noted that although the bearing can bear bidirectional axial load, if there is a gap for the ball on one side, care should be taken not to let the main axial load pass through the groove on the side with the gap. When the bearing is used, care should be taken to make the raceway on the side without the ball-loading notch bear the main load

Spherical Roller Bearings

The spherical roller bearing has two rows of rollers, the outer ring is a spherical raceway, and the inner ring has two raceways inclined at a certain angle relative to the bearing axis. The bearings are self-aligning, so they are less susceptible to misalignment between the shaft and the bearing housing and bending or deformation of the shaft. In addition to being able to withstand high radial loads, spherical roller bearings can also withstand axial loads acting in both directions. 

Heavy radial and axial loads can be a greater challenge when the shaft is prone to misalignment. This situation can be handled very well by spherical roller bearings. They have high load carrying capacities and can manage misalignment between the shaft and housing. This reduces maintenance cost and improves service life. Spherical roller bearing raceways are inclined at an angle to the bearing axis. Instead of straight sides, the rollers have spherical sides that fit onto the spherical raceways and accommodate small misalignments. 

Spherical roller bearings have a wide range of use-cases. They are used in applications where heavy loads, moderate to high speeds and possible misalignment occur. Some example uses are off-road vehicles, pumps, mechanical fans, marine propulsion, wind turbines, and gearboxes.

Thrust Ball Bearings

Thrust ball bearings are designed to withstand axial loads during high-speed operation, and consist of a washer-shaped track wheel with track grooves for ball rolling. Since the track wheel is a seat cushion type, the thrust ball bearing is divided into two types: flat seat cushion type and self-aligning spherical seat cushion type. In addition, this bearing can withstand axial loads, but not radial loads. Thrust ball bearings are available in one-way and two-way types. One-way thrust ball bearings consist of two orbiting wheels (collar and housing ring) and a cage with balls. Two-way thrust ball bearings consist of three track wheels and two cages with balls. In the case of bidirectional type, it takes the form of a collar clamped by two retainers fitted with balls.

Cylindrical Roller Bearings

The rollers of cylindrical roller bearings are usually guided by two ribs of a certain ring. The cage, the rollers and the guide ring form a combined part, which can be separated from the other ring, which is a separable bearing. This type of bearing is more convenient to install and disassemble, especially when the inner and outer rings are required to have an interference fit with the shaft and the outer casing.

Tapered Roller Bearings

Tapered roller bearing contains sections of a cone as a load-carrying element. These rollers fit between the two races that are also sections of a hollow cone. If the races and the axes of rollers were extended, they would all meet at a common point. 

Tapered roller bearings are designed to handle higher axial loads besides radial loads. The larger the half-angle of this common cone, the more axial load it can sustain. Thus they work as thrust bearings as well as radial load bearings.

Needle Roller Bearings

This kind of bearing housing can only bear a single bearing with axial load in one direction, and supports two duplex bearings for directional axial loads. The wheel of the double thrust ball bearing is composed of a shoulder ring and a collar mounted on the shaft and bolts to fix it on the shaft. The thrust ball bearing can withstand radial loads. And because the lubricant will. It is loose for centrifugal force, so it is not suitable for high-speed rotation. If it is used for a horizontal axis, attention must be paid to the inner wheel and outer. The clearance between the wheels does not allow the cage with the beads to be disengaged from the rail groove. Needle bearings are used in automobile components such as transmission and rocker arm pivots. They are also used in compressors and pumps.

Needle roller bearing is a special type of roller bearings that has cylindrical rollers that resemble needles because of their small diameter. Normally, the length of rollers in roller bearings is only slightly more than its diameter. When it comes to needle bearing, the length of rollers exceeds their diameter by at least four times.

As needle bearings have a smaller diameter, more rollers can be fit in the same space which increases the surface area in contact with the races. Thus, they are capable of handling high loads. The small size can also prove helpful in applications where space is limited as they require smaller clearances between the axle and the housing. Needle bearings are used in automobile components such as transmission and rocker arm pivots. They are also used in compressors and pumps.

Plain Bearings

Plain bearing is more commonly sliding contact bearings and plain bearings and they are the simplest type of bearing, consisting only of the bearing surface and no rolling elements. Therefore, the journal slides on the bearing surface. The simplest example of a plain bearing is a shaft that rotates in a bore. A simple linear bearing can be a pair of flat surfaces designed to allow motion. For example, drawers and their slides or rails on a lathe bed. Generally, plain bearings are the cheapest type of bearing.

Plain bearings are used for rotational, sliding, reciprocating or oscillatory motion. The bearing remains fixed while the journal slides on the bearing’s inner surface. To facilitate smooth movement, material pairs with low coefficients of friction are selected. This bearing can accommodate some misalignment, multi-directional movements, and is suitable for static as well as dynamic loads. It is used extensively in applications in the agriculture, automotive, marine, and construction industry.

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